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묵자: 유가 사상의 계승과 변질

김지수, "묵자(墨子)의 법사상", 이화여자대학교 법학논집 18권2호 (2013)
강봉수, "묵자의 유가(儒家) 비판에 관한 논고", 교육과학연구 제17권 제1호 (2015)
김형진, "『墨子』에 대한 전체주의적 해석의 단초", 哲學 제104집 (2010)

1. 尚賢 (재능을 숭상함)

[It is good for the state to have plenty of skilled archers and charioteers. By offering them good benefits, the state can secure many of them. Likewise, it is good to have plenty of] talented and good administrative staff who are ardent in the practice of virtuous conducts, clear in discourse, broadly learned in the Way and methods. They are the treasures of a state, keepers of the altars of soil and grain. They too must be enriched, honoured, respected and praised. Then, they may be obtained in plenty.
子墨子言曰:「譬若欲眾其國之善射御之士者,必將富之,貴之,敬之,譽之,然后國之善射御之士,將可得而眾也。
況又有賢良之士厚乎德行,辯乎言談,博乎道術者乎,此固國家之珍,而社稷之佐也,亦必且富之,貴之,敬之,譽之,然后國之良士,亦將可得而眾也。 (尚賢上 4)

[The ancient sage kings said,] no rightness, no rich; no rightness, no honour; no rightness, no favour; no rightness, no closeness ... Having heard this, everybody strove for rightness.
是故古者聖王之為政也 言曰:「不義不富,不義不貴,不義不親,不義不近。」
是以國之富貴人聞之,皆退而謀曰:『始我所恃者,富貴也,今上舉義不辟貧賤,然則我不可不為義。』
親者聞之,亦退而謀曰:『始我所恃者親也,今上舉義不辟疏,然則我不可不為義。』
近者聞之,亦退而謀曰:『始我所恃者近也,今上舉義不避遠,然則我不可不為義。』
遠者聞之,亦退而謀曰:『我始以遠為無恃,今上舉義不辟遠,然則我不可不為義。』
逮至遠鄙郊外之臣,門庭庶子,國中之眾、四鄙之萌人聞之,皆競為義 (尚賢上 5)

故官無常貴,而民無終賤,有能則舉之,無能則下之,舉公義,辟私怨,此若言之謂也。 (尚賢上 6)

尚賢者,天鬼百姓之利,而政事之本也。 (尚賢下 6)
Upholding the talent is the foundation of good governance.

cf. Lun Yu (尙賢 v 賢賢)

1.7 子夏曰:「賢賢易色,事父母能竭其力,事君能致其身,與朋友交言而有信。雖曰未學,吾必謂之學矣。」
2.20 季康子問:「使民敬、忠以勸,如之何?」子曰:「臨之以莊則敬,孝慈則忠,舉善而教不能,則勸。」

2. 논어 3.4에 대한 'Radical(根本주의적)' 이해

林放問禮之本。子曰:「大哉問!禮,與其奢也,寧儉;喪,與其易也,寧戚。」 (3.4)

節用 [Moderation of comfort]

Then, what should be the method of building a palace? Mo Zi said, walls should be able to shield from winds and coldness; the roof should be able to shield from snow, frost, rain and dews; the inside should be clean enough to offer ancestral sacrifices; partitions and outside walls should be able to maintain the distinction between men and women. This should be enough and no more. All additional expenses which do not add to the benefit of the people were avoided by the sage kings.
然則為宮室之法將柰何哉?子墨子言曰:「其旁可以圉風寒,上可以圉雪霜雨露,其中蠲潔,可以祭祀,宮牆足以為男女之別則止,諸加費不加民利者,聖王弗為。」 (節用中 6)

節葬[Moderation in funerals]

仁者가 천하는 위하는 도리는 효자가 부모를 위하는 도리와 다르지 않다.
仁者之為天下度也,辟之無以異乎孝子之為親度也 (節葬下 1)

富(재화) 眾(인구) 治(통치질서) 가 목표인데,

厚葬久喪 은
재화를 증대시키는데 도움이 안되고, (以此求富,此譬猶禁耕而求穫也,)
인구를 증가시키는데 도움이 안되고 (此其為敗男女之交多矣。以此求眾,譬猶使人負劍,而求其壽也。)
통치질서를 유지하는데 도움이 안됨 (夫眾盜賊而寡治者,以此求治,譬猶使人三還而毋負己也)

큰나라가 작은 나라를 침략하지 않도록 하는데도 도움이 안되고 (欲以禁止大國之攻小國也,意者可邪?其說又不可矣)
상제와 귀신의 복락을 달성하는데도 도움이 안되고(欲以干上帝鬼神之褔,意者可邪?其說又不可矣。)

그러므로 옛성왕들의 장례법은 minimalism, practical approach...
故古聖王制為葬埋之法,曰:『棺三寸,足以朽體;衣衾三領,足以覆惡。以及其葬也,下毋及泉,上毋通臭,壟若參耕之畝,則止矣。死則既以葬矣,生者必無久哭,而疾而從事,人為其所能,以交相利也。』此聖王之法也。」

非樂

民有三患:飢者不得食,寒者不得衣,勞者不得息 (非樂上 2)

음악은 배고픔, 추위, 피곤의 문제를 해결해 주지 못함.

혼자 음악을 듣지 않고 군자들이나 천인들과 함께 듣게 되는데, 그럼으로써 군자의 정사를 방해하고 천인의 생산활동을 방해...
其說將必與賤人不與君子。 與君子聽之,廢君子聽治;與賤人聽之,廢賤人之從事

요즘의 왕이나 고위관리들은 하는일 없이 백성들을 수탈하여 음악을 즐기는데, 묵자는 이러한 음악을 반대.
今王公大人惟毋為樂,虧奪民衣食之財,以拊樂如此多也。」是故子墨子曰:「為樂,非也。」

3. 兼愛[Reciprocation of love]

In a poem of Zhou [Shu Jing, Hong Fan], it is said, 'The kingly Way is immense. No sides, no parties. The kingly Way is even. No parties, no sides.' It was straight as an arrow, straightforward as a grinding stone. I am not making this up. In olden days, the king Wen and the king Wu rightly divided up equally. In rewarding the talented and in punishing the violent, no favouritism was shown to a father, an uncle, a brother younger or elder.
《周詩》曰:『王道蕩蕩,不偏不黨,王道平平,不黨不偏。其直若矢,其易若厎,君子之所履,小人之所視』,若吾言非語道之謂也,古者文武為正,均分賞賢罰暴,勿有親戚弟兄之所阿。」即此文武兼也。雖子墨子之所謂兼者,於文武取法焉。不識天下之人,所以皆聞兼而非之者,其故何也? (兼愛下 9)

In the Odes, the poem Ya has it, 'No word fails to get a reply; no virtue fails to get a recompense. Toss me a peach, I will pay you back with a pear.' This means that he who loves others is bound to exude love; he who hates others is bound to exude hatred.
《大雅》之所道曰:『無言而不讎,無德而不報』『投我以桃,報之以李。』即此言愛人者必見愛也,而惡人者必見惡也。不識天下之士,所以皆聞兼而非之者,其故何也? (兼愛下 10)

[어렵고 힘든 일도 사람들은 시키면 하게 되어 있다는 주장을 편 다음] 겸애는 서로 이익되는 일일 뿐 아니라 쉬운 것이기도 하다. 어째서 위정자들이 이것을 가르치지 않는지 모르겠다. 위정자들이 상과 벌로써 겸애를 권장하기만 하면 사람들은 서로 이익되는 방향으로 서로 사랑하게 될 것.
今若夫兼相愛,交相利,此其有利且易為也,不可勝計也,我以為則無有上說之者而已矣。苟有上說之者,勸之以賞譽,威之以刑罰,我以為人之於就兼相愛交相利也,譬之猶火之就上,水之就下也,不可防止於天下。

cf. Lun Yu,
1.6 (汎愛眾,而親仁),
15.24 (子曰:「其恕乎!己所不欲,勿施於人。」 What you yourself do not want, do not do it to others.),

4. 非攻 [No war of aggression]

When you kill one person, people will say it is wrong. You committed the crime of killing one person. Proceeding along this line of argument, we may say that killing ten persons are ten times as wrong. It must be the ten-fold crime of killing. Killing one hundred persons is hundred times as wrong. It must be the hundred-fold crime of killing. About this, all noble men know and condemn and say that it is wrong. But when it comes to committing the great wrong of attacking a country, they do not condemn. They go along and extol it. They say it is right ... We can tell that all noble men of this world are seriously mixed up in their ability to tell the right from the wrong.
殺一人謂之不義,必有一死罪矣,若以此說往,殺十人十重不義,必有十死罪矣;殺百人百重不義,必有百死罪矣。當此,天下之君子皆知而非之,謂之不義。今至大為不義攻國,則弗知1非,從而譽之,謂之義,... 是以知天下之君子也,辯義與不義之亂也。 (非攻上 2)

하늘에 이롭고, 귀신에 이롭고, 사람에 이로운 것은 높이 평가 받아야 하겠지만....
為其上中天之利,而中中鬼之利,而下中人之利,故譽之與 (非攻下 1)

전쟁은 이 셋 모두에게 해롭다는 주장

[War of aggression v War of retribution]

5. 尚同 [Upholding uniformity]

In the beginning, when people started to appear, punishment and governance were not yet in place. Everybody had his own standard of what is right and what is wrong ... The whole world was in a chaos just like the animal world.
子墨子言曰:「古者民始生,未有刑政之時,蓋其語『人異義』。是以一人則一義,二人則二義,十人則十義,其人茲眾,其所謂義者亦茲眾。是以人是其義,以非人之義,故文相非也。是以內者父子兄弟作怨惡,離散不能相和合。天下之百姓,皆以水火毒藥相虧害,至有餘力不能以相勞,腐臭餘財不以相分,隱匿良道不以相教,天下之亂,若禽獸然。 (尚同上 1)

[In such condition, there is no place for Industry; because the fruit thereof is uncertain: and consequently no Culture of the Earth; no Navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by Sea; no commodious Building; no Instruments of moving, and removing such things as require much force; no Knowledge of the face of the Earth; no account of Time; no Arts; no Letters; no Society; and which is worst of all, continuall feare, and danger of violent death; And the life of man, solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short. - Hobbes, Leviathan, ch. 13.]

혼란의 원인은 군주가 없었기 때문... 天子 三公 諸侯國君 正長
夫明虖天下之所以亂者,生於無政長。是故選天下之賢可者,立以為天子。天子立,以其力為未足,又選擇天下之賢可者,置立之以為三公。天子三公既以立,以天下為博大,遠國異土之民,是非利害之辯,不可一二而明知,故畫分萬國,立諸侯國君,諸侯國君既已立,以其力為未足,又選擇其國之賢可者,置立之以為正長。 (尚同上 2)

The Son of Heaven then proclaims to the people of the world, ... 'Report to your superior.' The village chiefs then proclaim to the villagers, `If you hear something good or something bad, you shall report to the regional governor.' [In this manner, intelligence can be gathered and] the regional governor can obtain uniformity of what is right and what is wrong. The region is then governed. The regional governor proclaims to the people of the region, 'When you see or hear something good or something bad, you shall report to the feudal king.' [In this manner,] the king can obtain uniformity of what is right and what is wrong. The kingdom is then governed. The king proclaims to the people of the kingdom, 'When you see what is good for the kingdom or what is bad for the kingdom, you shall report to the Son of Heaven.' The Son of Heaven can then obtain uniformity of what is right and what is wrong. The whole world is then governed.
天子發政於天下之百姓,言曰:『聞善而不善,皆以告其上。上之所是,必皆是之,所非必皆非之,上有過則規諫之,下有善則傍薦之。上同而不下比者,此上之所賞,而下之所譽也。

里長者,里之仁人也
『聞善而不善,必以告其鄉長。鄉長之所是,必皆是之,鄉長之所非,必皆非之。去若不善言,學鄉長之善言;去若不善行,學鄉長之善行,則鄉何說以亂哉?』

鄉長者,鄉之仁人也。
『聞善而不善者,必以告國君。國君之所是,必皆是之,國君之所非,必皆非之。去若不善言,學國君之善言,去若不善行,學國君之善行,則國何說以亂哉。』

國君者,國之仁人也。
『聞善而不善。必以告天子。天子之所是,皆是之,天子之所非,皆非之。去若不善言,學天子之善言;去若不善行,學天子之善行,則天下何說以亂哉。』

鄉長唯能壹同鄉之義,是以鄉治也。
國君唯能壹同國之義,是以國治也。
天子唯能壹同天下之義,是以天下治也。 (尚同上 4, 5, 6)

However, when the uniformity is achieved all the way up to the Son of Heaven, but not up to the Heaven itself, disasters will strike.
天下之百姓皆上同於天子,而不上同於天,則菑猶未去也。 ... 天之所以罰百姓之不上同於天者也。」 (尚同上 7)

[cf. Lun Yu, 13.23 (君子和而不同,小人同而不和。)]
[cf. Lun Yu, 3.9 子曰:「夏禮,吾能言之,杞不足徵也;殷禮,吾能言之,宋不足徵也。文獻不足故也,足則吾能徵之矣。」]

6. 天志 [The will of Heaven]

하늘은 모든 것을 안다.(天 ... 明必見之)
If a person residing in a household commits a crime against the head of the household, the culprit can escape to a neighbouring household. ... If a person residing in a state commits a crime against the head of the state, the culprit can escape to a neighbouring state. ... Now, everybody resides in this world under the Heaven. A person who commits a crime against the Heaven has nowhere to escape to. Heaven sees everything clearly. (天志上 1)

[cf. Lun Yu, 3.13 獲罪於天,無所禱也]

하늘은 정의를 원하고 불의를 미워한다(天欲義而惡不義).
Then, what does Heaven desire? What does Heaven abhor? Heaven desires rightness; Heaven abhors crookedness.(天欲義而惡不義) ... How do I know? If there is rightness in this world, all live. If there is no rightness, all die.(天下有義則生,無義則死) If there is rightness, wealth ensues. If there is no rightness, poverty ensues. If there is rightness, there is order. If there is no rightness, there is chaos. Heaven, however, desires life and abhors death; desires wealth and abhors poverty; desires order and abhors chaos. As this is [obviously?] right, I know that the Heaven desires rightness and abhors crookedness. (天志上 2)

정의는 하늘에서 나온다(義果自天出).
정의는 어리석고 천한 자에서 나오는 것이 아니라 귀하고 지혜로운 자에서 나온다(義不從愚且賤者出,必自貴且知者出). 하늘이 가장 귀하고 지혜롭다. 그러므로 정의는 하늘에서 나온다.(天志中 1)

하늘은 백성을 사랑한다(天之愛天下之百姓).
무고한 사람을 한명 죽이면, 불길한 일이 하나 생긴다. 하늘이 백성을 사랑하기 때문...
且吾言殺一不辜者必有一不祥。殺不辜者誰也?則人也。予之不祥者誰也?則天也。若以天為不愛天下之百姓,則何故以人與人相殺,而天予之不祥?此我所以知天之愛天下之百姓也。(天志上 5)

하느님은 인간을 매우 사랑하시니... 天之愛民之厚者
I know Heaven's love for the people is great. This is because he laid out the sun, the moon and the stars and guides them brilliantly; he created the four seasons and leads them in order; he makes the snow, frost, rain and dews fall so that five grains and hemp can grow; he lets the people harvest them so that these materials can benefit them; he made the mountains, rivers and valleys; and he disposes and propagates all things therein. He superintends the people's conducts good and bad. He installs the kings, dukes, counts, viscounts to rule the people. He rewards the talented; punishes the violent. He provides the metal, wood, birds and animals in abundance. He tends five grains and hemp so that people can have them as food and clothes. Of old until now, things have always been like this. Now, imagine the same in human relationship. A father graces the son with love. He expends all his might and single-handedly endeavours to benefit the son. The son grows and does not render unto the father the things that are father's. [Matt. 22.21] All noble men of the world will say that it is immoral and blasphemous. (天志中 6)

내가 하늘의 뜻을 안다. 我有天志
Mo Zi said, 'I have the Will of Heaven just as a wheelwright has the gauge; just as a carpenter has the square. Wheelwrights and carpenters take the gauge and the square; they measure wheels and angles of the world and say, ``This is correct.'' ``This is not correct.''(我有天志,譬若輪人之有規,匠人之有矩,輪匠執其規矩,以度天下之方圜) These days, scholars and rulers have produced so many books. Their arguments are inexhaustible. Grand dukes have their theories, small scholars have their theories. As far as moral fortitude and rightness are concerned, however, they are all way off the mark. How do I know? I know because I have obtained the brightest measure of this world and measure them.' (天志上 7)

cf. 詩經, 文王之什, 皇矣
The Lord spoke to the king Wen,
'I have bright virtue in me
But my voice is not loud, my appearance is not striking
My whip is not long, my lash is not thick
You won't see me, you won't know me
Follow my rule.'
帝謂文王、予懷明德、不大聲以色、不長夏以革。
不識不知、順帝之則。

詩經, 文王之什, 文王

上天之載、無聲無臭。
하늘위에서의 일은 소리도 냄새도 없네
儀刑文王、萬邦作孚。
문왕의 모범을 따르면 온세상의 믿음을 얻으리(孚=信)

7. 明鬼 [Proving the existence of ghosts]

[Why is the whole world now in a chaos?] This is because everybody is in doubt as to the existence or non-existence of ghosts and spirits. Nobody is clear about the ability of the ghosts and spirits to recompense the talent and punish the violent.

The way to investigate the existence or non-existence of a phenomenon is to see whether many people have actually witnessed or heard it. A mere account that a certain this saw it or a certain that heard it will not be enough.

Those who insist on non-existence of ghosts say, 'So many people claim to have seen or heard the ghosts and spirits. But who exactly have done so?' Mo Zi says, 'In fact, many people saw it together, heard it together. Du Bo is the case in point ...'

Those who insist on non-existence of ghosts say, 'This is no more than many people's account of what they saw or heard. Is it enough to settle the doubt? How can a man who aspires to be a noble man of this world can be so gullible as to believe many people's account of what they saw or heard?' Mo Zi says, 'If many people's account of what they heard or saw is not enough to believe, not enough to settle the doubt, we won't know what the ancient sage kings Yao, Xun, Yu, Tang, Wen, Wu were like. Then, how can you say that they are to be emulated? Those who are above average all agree that the sage kings of the previous three dynasties are good enough to be emulated. [In numerous books which record their deeds, however, we may see that] they all believed in the existence of ghosts and spirits. They all served them well. Those who insist on the non-existence of ghosts go against the practice of the sage kings. Going against the practice of the sage kings is not the way of a noble man.'

Those who insist on non-existence of ghosts say, 'If the intention is not genuine, [offering sacrifice to the ghosts] is merely harming the interest of family members. Would such a practice make a respectful son?' Mo Zi says, `[In most cases, the sacrifice will be for the ghosts of one's deceased parents or relatives.] If these ghosts should be there, it is to offer food and drinks to one's parents and relatives. Is it not a great benefit? Even if these ghosts should not be there, the expenses of offering sacrifices are not wasted because family members and village people can all eat and drink. Through these occasions, people can get together and rejoice resulting in good bonding of the village people.'

Those who insist on non-existence of ghosts say, `Ghosts and spirits simply do not exist. That is why you should not offer food, drinks and sacrificial animals. It is not that I cherish the food, drinks and sacrificial animals. I simply do not see what can be gained.' This is against the books of the sage kings, against the deeds of respectful sons.

[cf. Lun Yu,
11.12 季路問事鬼神。子曰:「未能事人,焉能事鬼?」敢問死。曰:「未知生,焉知死?」
7.21 子不語怪,力,亂,神。
2.24 子曰 非其鬼而祭之,諂也
7.35 子疾病,子路請禱。子曰:「有諸?」子路對曰:「有之。誄曰:『禱爾于上下神祇。』」子曰:「丘之禱久矣。」

8. 非命 [No Fate]

[Some say that there is the fate; some say that there is no fate.] If many people saw or heard it, we may know that there is the fate. If not, we may know that there is no fate. As none of the people have ever seen or heard the fate, we may conclude that there is no fate. If the base people are not to be trusted, why not observe the feudal lords' account or sayings? Again, none of the feudal lords have ever heard the sound of the fate, seen the shape of the fate. Let us then observe the affairs of the sage kings.

[Whether there was a good government or a bad government depended on the ability of the ruler. So there was no fate. Only the tyrants had claimed the fate. But the sage kings have all vanquished them. In their good reign, all said that it was due to their effort.]

[Why do people work hard? If they don't, they will lose the benefit of good government, peace, wealth, honour, prosperity, warmth, and a full belly. If they should believe in the fate, who would work hard?]

Noble men of the world who wish to promote the interest of the world and remove the harm of the world should condemn the theory of fate.

[cf. Sivaka-sutta: One day ... Moliya-Sivaka asked Buddha, `Oh! Venerable Gautama, there are the religious and the bramans who hold this view, ``All feelings joyful, sorrowful and neutral of an individual are the result of the actions which the person committed in the past.'' What say you, Venerable Gautama?' Buddha said, `Oh! Sivaka, there are also feelings which arise because of the physical condition (three kinds of humour - pitta semha, vata - and their combination). The existence of these feelings is generally recognised by people as truthful. The religious and the bramans who say ``All feelings joyful, sorrowful and neutral of an individual are the result of the actions which the person committed in the past'' go too far from the facts recognisable by personal experience and from the facts generally admitted by people. There are also feelings which arise because of the seasonal changes. ... There are also feelings which arise because of irregular events. ... There are also feelings which arise because of sudden accidents. ... There are also feelings which arise because of maturation of actions.']

9. 非儒 [Against Confucians]

Throughout summer, they beg barley and rice. When five grains have all been harvested, they go after big funerals. They bring along their children and relatives to the funeral and bloat out. A few funerals will be enough to get them going. At the expense of other's family, they fatten themselves. Relying on other's field, they promote themselves. If a rich man has a funeral, they go crazy with joy and say, `This is the beginning of good food and good clothes!'

공구는 철저히 계획하고 모의해서 반란 세력을 지원하고, 열심히 생각하고 아는 것도 많은데 그것으로 사악한 행위를 감행하며, 아랫 사람들을 부추겨서 윗 사람을 끌어내리도록 하고, 신하들에게 주군을 살해하도록 가르칩니다. 이것은 현명한 사람이 하는 일이 아닙니다. 제후국을 방문해서는 반란 세력과 함께하는데 이것은 올바른 사람이 하는 일이 아닙니다. 사람들에게 충성심이 없어졌음을 알고는 반란을 일으키도록 부추기는데, 이것은 좋지도 않고 옳지도 않습니다. 도망간 후에도 모의를 하고, 등뒤에서는 나쁜 말을 퍼뜨립니다. 자신은 옳은 일을 한다고 믿겠지만 사람들이 보기에는 혼란스럽고, 그 사람이 기획하고 감행하려 준비하는 것에 군주나 신하들이 함께 할 수는 없는 것입니다.

공자의 무리들은 매끄러운 말로 사람들을 현혹하므로 법을 지키도록 할 수가 없습니다. 그들은 오만하여 자기 입장만을 내세우니 아랫사람으로 기용할 수도 없습니다. 상례를 중히 여기고 슬픈 감정을 끝까지 추구하여 재산을 탕진하면서까지 후하게 장례를 지내니 이것으로 풍속을 삼을 수도 없습니다. 떠돌아 다니며 사람들을 선동하고 재물을 구걸하니 나라꼴이 말이 아닐 것입니다. 위대한 인물들이 자취를 감춘 후 주나라 왕실은 쇠퇴했고 예악도 흠결이 많게 되었습니다. 하지만 공자는 외모를 성대하게 하고 치장을 화려하게 하여 오르고 내리는 예법과 빨리 걷고 천천히 걷는 예절을 번잡하게 만들었으니 몇 세대가 걸려도 그들의 가르침을 다 배울 수는 없고 한두 해에 그들의 예법을 다 알아낼 수도 없습니다. 군주께서는 그를 기용하여 제나라의 풍속을 바꾸려하시지만 그는 일반 백성들의 스승이 될 만하지 못합니다

[An Ying continues,] 공자가 진나라, 채나라 사이에서 궁지에 빠져 명아주국만으로 싸라기도 없이 열흘을 지냈다. 자로가 돼지고기를 구해 삶아주자 고기가 어디서 났는지 물어보지도 않고 먹었다. 남의 옷을 벗겨 술을 사다주자 공자는 술이 어디서 났는지 물어보지도 않고 마셨다.

노나라 애공이 공자를 맞아들이니 방석이 반듯하지 않다고 앉지도 않고, 음식이 반듯하게 썰어져 있지 않다고 먹지도 않았다.

자로가 "어째, 진, 채 나라 사이에 있을 때와는 이렇게 다릅니까?"라고 묻자, 공자가 이렇게 말했다: "이리와 내가 이야기 해줄께. 전에는 너와 살기 바빴지만, 지금은 너와 옳은일 하기 바빠. 굶주리고 가난할 때에야 닥치고 살 길을 찾아야 하겠지만, 배부르고 여유가 생기면 거짓으로라도 좀 꾸며야 해"

사기도 이런 더러운 사기가 어디 있겠는가? (墨子, 非儒下, 11)

[cf. Lun Yu,
3.18,The Master said, "If you serve your boss in full compliance with Li, people will say that you are a flatterer. 子曰:「事君盡禮,人以為諂也。」
1.1: `People don't understand you and you don't mind; you sure are a noble man!']

10. 貴義[Endearing rightness] - yi (rightness) or li (benefit)?

Suppose a man offers you a hat and shoes. In return he proposes to chop your hands off. Would you agree? You wouldn't. Because a hat and shoes are not as dear as your own limbs. Suppose a man offers you the whole world. In return, he proposes to take your life. Would you agree? You wouldn't because the whole world is not as dear as your life. Over one word, however, people kill each other. This shows that rightness is dearer than one's own life. Nothing, therefore, is dearer than rightness.

Noble men of the world treat rightful scholars with even less esteem than they treat a coolie carrying cereal. Imagine this. A coolie has rested on the roadside. Now he wants to stand up again with his load of cereal. But he is having difficulty. A noble man sees this. Without any regard to the age, low or high status of the person, he will help him to stand up. Why? `Because it is right', he says. These days, noble men who [supposedly] practice rightness transmit the Way of ancient kings only to preach; they do not do what they expound. Rather, they deny and defile it. This is why I say noble men of the world treat rightful scholars with even less esteem than they treat a coolie carrying cereal.

Mo Zi said, `Merchants go to all corners. To sell their wares in markets, they move about with passport. In spite of the difficulties of crossing the check-points and toll-gates, in spite of the danger of thieves and robbers, they do it. Scholars, however, can remain seated and discuss rightness. There is no difficulty of crossing the check-points and toll-gates, no danger of thieves and robbers. [The comfort] is incomparable to the discomfort of having to move about with passport. Still, they don't do it. That is, scholars cannot calculate the benefit while merchants even investigate it.

When I say a blind man does not know black and white, I do not mean that he does not know the name. I mean he does not know what the name refers to. ... I say noble men of the world do not know ethical resolve. They do know the name but they do not know what it refers to.

Refuting my argument with your argument is just like hitting a boulder with an egg. Use all the eggs in the world. The boulder will still be right [there]. You cannot even make a dent.

[cf. Lun Yu, 4.16: `Noble men always go by rightness; the petty and the lowly always go by benefit.']

Fundamentalist fanatics?

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