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15. Duke Ling (靈) of Wei (衛)

1. Duke Ling of Wei (衛) asked Confucius about military tactical formations. Confucius replied, "Regarding the handling of ceremonial vessels, I have heard and studied a bit. Regarding military troops, I have not learned yet." On the following day, Confucius left Wei.
衛靈公問陳於孔子。孔子對曰:「俎豆之事,則嘗聞之矣;軍旅之事,未之學也。」明日遂行。

2. In Chen (陳), they ran out of food, attendants fell ill and none of them could move. Zi Lu revealed his discontent and said, "Does a noble man also suffer like this?" The Master said, "A noble man firmly suffers -- unlike the petty and the lowly who transgress when they suffer."
在陳絕糧,從者病,莫能興。子路慍見曰:「君子亦有窮乎?」子曰:「君子固窮,小人窮斯濫矣。」

3. The Master said, "Ci (賜), do you think I am someone who learned a lot of things and acquired the knowledge?" Zi Gong replied, "Yes. Is it not the case?" The Master said, "No. I only have one overarching principle."
子曰:「賜也,女以予為多學而識之者與?」對曰:「然,非與?」曰:「非也,予一以貫之。」

4. The Master said, "You (由), few people know what virtue means."
子曰:「由!知德者鮮矣。」

5. The Master said, "Shun (舜) is the one who ruled effortlessly, isn't he? What did he do? He just reverently occupied the royal seat facing South and that's it."
子曰:「無為而治者,其舜也與?夫何為哉,恭己正南面而已矣。」

6. Zi Zhang asked about success. The Master said, "Speech must be loyal and trustworthy. Conduct must be sincere and respectful. You will then succeed even in barbarian countries. If your speech is not loyal or trustworthy and if your conduct is not sincere or respectful, will you succeed even in a village? When you are standing, you must see these precepts in front of you. When you are in a carriage, you must see these precepts attached to the yoke. You can then succeed." Zi Zhang wrote them on his belt.
子張問行。子曰:「言忠信,行篤敬,雖蠻貊之邦行矣;言不忠信,行不篤敬,雖州里行乎哉?立,則見其參於前也;在輿,則見其倚於衡也。夫然後行。」子張書諸紳。[行 = 成功]

7. The Master said, "Record keeper Yu (魚) was an upright person indeed! When the country was on the right path, he was straight as an arrow. When the country was on the wrong path, he was straight as an arrow. Qu Bo Yu (蘧伯玉) was a noble man indeed! When the country was on the right path, he took up a post. When the country was on the wrong path, he was able to wind up and kept a low profile."
子曰:「直哉史魚!邦有道,如矢;邦無道,如矢。」君子哉蘧伯玉!邦有道,則仕;邦無道,則可卷而懷之。」

8. The Master said, "Not to speak to those who are worth having a conversation with, is to lose people. To speak to those who are not worth having a conversation with, is to commit an error of speech. A man of wisdom does not lose people. Nor does he commit an error of speech."
子曰:「可與言而不與之言,失人;不可與言而與之言,失言。知者不失人,亦不失言。」

9. The Master said, "Determined persons who have ethical resolve will not seek to live undermining ethical resolve. They will even sacrifice their live to fulfil their ethical resolve."
子曰:「志士仁人,無求生以害仁,有殺身以成仁。」

10. Zi Gong asked about carrying out ethical resolve. The Master said, "A worker who wishes to do a good job must have his tools sharpened beforehand. While you are staying in this country, serve those of the high ranking officials who have talent and befriend those of the scholars who have ethical resolve."
子貢問為仁。子曰:「工欲善其事,必先利其器。居是邦也,事其大夫之賢者,友其士之仁者。」

11. Yan Yuan asked about looking after a country. The Master said, "Adopt the calendar of Xia (夏), ride the carriage of Yin (殷), wear the crown of Zhou (周). As for music, go for Shao (韶) style and its dance. Ban the songs of Zheng (鄭). Stay away from smooth talkers. Songs of Zheng are licentious. Smooth talkers are dangerous."
顏淵問為邦。子曰:「行夏之時,乘殷之輅,服周之冕,樂則韶舞。放鄭聲,遠佞人。鄭聲淫,佞人殆。」

12. The Master said, "If you do not plan ahead in advance, you are bound to have troubles in no time."
子曰:「人無遠慮,必有近憂。」

13. The Master said, "Alas, I have not seen a person who likes virtue as much as he likes a beauty.
子曰:「已矣乎!吾未見好德如好色者也。」

14. The Master said, "Zang Wen Zhong (臧文仲) must have got his position like a thief, isn't it? He knew that Hui (惠) of Liu Xia is a talented man and yet did not recommend him for a post."
子曰:「臧文仲其竊位者與?知柳下惠之賢,而不與立也。」

15. The Master said, "If you reproach yourself more and reproach others less, you can stay away from resentment."
子曰:「躬自厚而薄責於人,則遠怨矣。」

16. The Master said, "Those who do not say 'how will I do it?' 'how will I do it?', I cannot do anything about them."
子曰:「不曰『如之何如之何』者,吾末如之何也已矣。」

17. The Master said, "Suppose a bunch of people stay together all day, talk about things unrelated to righteousness and indulge in doing clever tricks. They will be in trouble!
子曰:「群居終日,言不及義,好行小慧,難矣哉!」

18. The Master said, "A noble man would have righteousness as his base. He practices it in accordance with Li. He puts it forward politely. He completes it with sincerity. Such is a noble man!"
子曰:「君子義以為質,禮以行之,孫以出之,信以成之。君子哉!」

19. The Master said, "A noble man is worried about his lack of ability. He is not worried about lack of recognition."
子曰:「君子病無能焉,不病人之不己知也。」

20. The Master said, "A noble man would be mortified if he is not even once commended until his death."
子曰:「君子疾沒世而名不稱焉。」

21. The Master said, "A noble man seeks from within. The petty and the lowly seek from others.
子曰:「君子求諸己,小人求諸人。」

22. The Master said, "A noble man has a sense of pride without being quarrelsome. He is convivial without forming a clique."
子曰:「君子矜而不爭,群而不黨。」

23. The Master said, "A noble man does not promote a person simply because of his words. Nor does he dismiss words simply because of the person."
子曰:「君子不以言舉人,不以人廢言。」

24. Zi Gong asked, "Is there a saying which I should practice all my life?" The Master said, "'To be considerate', that's it! What you yourself do not want, don't do it to others."
子貢問曰:「有一言而可以終身行之者乎?」子曰:「其恕乎!己所不欲,勿施於人。」

25. The Master said, "In my dealings with others, have I done calumny or adulation? If I praise someone excessively, that is to see what he is made of. It is thanks to these people that the three dynasties of Xia, Yin and Zhou could take the upright path."
子曰:「吾之於人也,誰毀誰譽?如有所譽者,其有所試矣。斯民也,三代之所以直道而行也。」

26. The Master said, "I have seen record officers omitting to record a statement. Those who had horses let others ride them. They are all gone now."
子曰:「吾猶及史之闕文也,有馬者借人乘之。今亡矣夫!」

27. The Master said, "Soothing words confound virtue. Failure to tolerate small matters would disrupt greater plans."
子曰:「巧言亂德,小不忍則亂大謀。」

28. The Master said, "If a person is hated by many, you must keep close watch on him. If a person is liked by many, you must keep close watch on him."
子曰:「眾惡之,必察焉;眾好之,必察焉。」

29. The Master said, "Man can broaden the Way. The Way does not broaden man.
子曰:「人能弘道,非道弘人。」

30. The Master said, "Not to correct your errors, that is precisely the error."
子曰:「過而不改,是謂過矣。」

31. The Master said, "Once I did not eat during the day, did not sleep during the night and kept thinking. But I made no progress. Thinking is not as good as learning."
子曰:「吾嘗終日不食,終夜不寢,以思,無益,不如學也。」

32. The Master said, "A noble man seeks the Way. He does not seek food. When you till the land, you may sometimes end up not having enough to eat. When you learn, you may sometimes end up having a salary. But a noble man's concern is about the Way. It is not about avoiding poverty."
子曰:「君子謀道不謀食。耕也,餒在其中矣;學也,祿在其中矣。君子憂道不憂貧。」

33.The Master said, "Suppose you have sufficient knowledge. But if you do not have ethical resolve to hold fast to what you know, then even though you may attain something, you are bound to lose it. Suppose you have sufficient knowledge as well as ethical strength to hold fast to what you know. But if you do not face people with splendour, people won't respect you. Suppose you have sufficient knowledge, you have ethical strength to hold fast to what you know and you face people with splendour. But if you mobilise people not in accordance with Li, that is not good."
子曰:「知及之,仁不能守之;雖得之,必失之。知及之,仁能守之。不莊以涖之,則民不敬。知及之,仁能守之,莊以涖之。動之不以禮,未善也。」

34. The Master said, "A noble man does not know small matters but he is capable of accepting big matters. The petty and the lowly are not capable of accepting big matters but they know small matters."
子曰:「君子不可小知,而可大受也;小人不可大受,而可小知也。」

35. The Master said, "People's life depends on ethical resolve more than water and fire. As for water and fire, I have seen people die having treaded on water or fire. But I have never seen people die having treaded on ethical resolve."
子曰:「民之於仁也,甚於水火。水火,吾見蹈而死者矣,未見蹈仁而死者也。」

36. The Master said, "In carrying out ethical resolve, you would not give way to an army of 2500 soldiers."
子曰:「當仁不讓於師。」

37. The Master said, "A noble man is incorrupt but he is not stiff."
子曰:「君子貞而不諒。」

38. The Master said, "When you serve your boss, carry out the task sincerely before you think about the salary."
子曰:「事君,敬其事而後其食。」

39. The Master said, "Teaching does away with class distinctions."
子曰:「有教無類。」

40. The Master said, "If you do not share the same fundamental principles, you should not plan on a project together."
子曰:「道不同,不相為謀。」

41. The Master said, "As for speech, it suffices to get the message across."
子曰:「辭達而已矣。」

42. Music Master Mian (冕) [a blind man] came to see Confucius. When the blind man was at the steps, Confucius said, "There, you have steps." When he arrived at the seat, Confucius said, "There, you have the seat." When everyone was seated, Confucius reported to him, "So and so is here. So and so is here." After the Music Master left, Zi Zhang asked, "Is that how you speak to a Music Master?" Confucius said, "Yes, that's how you attend upon a Music Master."
師冕見,及階,子曰:「階也。」及席,子曰:「席也。」皆坐,子告之曰:「某在斯,某在斯。」師冕出。子張問曰:「與師言之道與?」子曰:「然。固相師之道也。」

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