1. Xian asked what was shameful. The Master said, "When the country is on the right path, to think only about money; when the country is on the wrong path, to think only about money; that is shameful." "How about refraining from vainglory, boasting, resentment, and covetousness? Can it be regarded as ethical resolve?" The Master said, "That would be achieving something which is difficult to achieve. But I do not know whether that is ethical resolve."
2. The Master said, "If an officer cherishes comfortable dwelling, he is not fit to be regarded as an officer."
3. The Master said, "When the country is on the right path, take some risk in your conduct and speech. When the country is on the wrong path, take the risk in your conduct but be careful about your speech."
4. The Master said, "A virtuous man is bound to be eloquent. An eloquent man is not necessarily a virtuous man. A man of ethical resolve is bound to have courage. Courageous man is not necessarily a man of ethical resolve."
5. Nan Gong Kuo (南宮适) posed a question to Confucius, "Yi (羿) was a good marksman. Ao (奡) was stong enough to push around a ship on land. But none of them died a natural death. Yu (禹) and Ji (稷) would themselves sow seeds like humble farmers. Yet Yu and Ji ruled the whole world." The Master did not respond. Nan Gong Kuo went out. The Master said, "That guy is a noble man indeed! He looks up to virtues!"
[南宮适 = 南容]
6. The Master said, "There have been cases of a noble man lacking ethical resolve. There has been no case of the petty and the lowly having ethical resolve."
7. If you love it, is it possible that you make no effort for it? If you have loyalty, is it possible that you do not share what you know?
8. The Master said, "[in the state of Zheng] When preparing diplomatic speeches, Pi Shen made the first draft; Shi Shu examined and discussed its contents; Zi Yu, who is responsible for diplomatic missions, polished the style; Zi Chan of Dong Li gave it a final touch."
9. Someone asked about Zi Chan. Confucius replied. "He is kind." Someone asked about Zi Xi. Confucius said, "Don’t ask me about him! Not him!’ Someone asked about Guan Zhong. Confucius said, ‘A great man (a man of ethical resolve). He grabbed the town of Pian which had three hundred households from the Bo family. The villagers only managed to have coarse meals, but they had no resentment until the end (even when they had no teeth from old age).’
或問子產。子曰：「惠人也。」問子西。曰：「彼哉！彼哉！」問管仲。曰：「人也。奪伯氏駢邑三百，飯疏食，沒齒，無怨言。」 [Zi Xi was a minister of Chu. When duke Zhao (who styled himself as 'king Zhao 昭王') wanted to employ Confucius, Zi Xi advised against it. Zi Xi eventually invited Ba Gong with disastrous consequences.]
10. The Master said, "To be in poverty without a resentment, is difficult. To be in affluence without being arrogant, is easy."
11. The Master said, "Meng Gong Chuo can serve well as a butler of the household of Zhao or Wei. He should not be made a minister of the State of Teng or Xue.
子曰：「孟公綽，為趙魏老則優，不可以為滕薛大夫。」 [Mr Zhao and Mr Wei are high officers of the State of Jin. Teng and Zue are small states.]
12. Zi Lu asked about 'accomplished man'. The Master said, "If you have wisdom like Zang Wu Zhong, lack desire like Gong Chuo, have courage like Bian Zhuang Zi, have skills like Ran Qiu and if you refine them all with Li and Music, then you can be regarded an accomplished man." The Master then continued, "These days, however, an accomplished man need not be like that. When you see gain, you think about what is right. When your cause is in danger, you dedicate your life to defend it. You do not forget promises however old, however routine. Then you can be regarded as an accomplished man."
13. The Master asked Gong Ming Jia about Gong Shu Wen Zi as follows: "Is it true that he does not speak, does not smile and does not take anything?" Gong Ming Jia replied, "There has been a bit of exaggerated reporting. My master speaks when the time is ripe. So his speech is well received. He smiles when everybody is delighted. So his smile is well received. He takes things when it is right to do so. So his taking is well received." The Master said, "Is that so? Is that really so?"
14. The Master said, "Zang Wu Zhong relied on his fiefdom to ask the State of Lu to appoint his successor. Although it is said that he did not blackmail the ruler, I do not believe it."
15. The Master said, "Duke Wen of Jin was crafty; he was not forthright. Duke Huan of Qi was forthright. He was not crafty."
16. Zi Lu said, "When Duke Huan caused his brother Jiu to be killed, Shao Hu died with his master but Guan
Zhong did not die. May I not say that he lacked ethical resolve?" The Master said, "Duke Huan assembled all princes together without even using weapons of war and chariots - it was all through the influence of Guan Zhong. Have ethical resolve like him! Such ethical resolve as his!"
17. Zi Gong said, “Guan Zhong lacked ethical resolve, did he not? When Duke Huan of Qi had his brother Jiu killed, Guan Zhong was unable to commit suicide. He instead served Duke Huan as his minister.” The Master said, "Guan Zhong acted as prime minister supporting duke Huan to become the leader of all princes uniting and rectifying the whole world. Down to the present day, people enjoy the gifts which he conferred. But for Guan Zhong, we would now be wearing our hair unbound and lapels of our coats buttoning on the left side. Will you require from him the small fidelity of common men and common women, which would make them commit suicide in a stream or a ditch, no one knowing anything about them?"
18. Gong Shu Wen Zi had his aide Lord Xian promoted and they both became government ministers together. The Master heard this and said, "He deserves to be called 'Wen (refined)'."
19. The Master was speaking about the lawlessness of duke Ling of Wei. Kang Zi then said, "If he is like that, why is he not ousted?" Confucius said, "Duke Ling has Zhong Shu Yu take care of receiving guests, Zhu Tuo take care of ancestral ceremonies, Wang Sun Jia take care of the military. As he is like this, how can he be ousted?"
20. The Master said, "If you speak without shame, it will be difficult for you to carry out your word