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8. Tai Bo (泰伯)

1. The Master said, "Tai Bo (泰伯) can be considered to have attained the ultimate virtue. Three times he relinquished the rulership of the whole world. And yet, people had no knowledge of it and no way of praising him."
子曰:「泰伯,其可謂至德也已矣!三以天下讓,民無得而稱焉。」

2. The Master said, "When modesty is not grounded on Li, it becomes slavish; when cautiousness is not grounded on Li, it becomes cowardly; when courage is not grounded on Li, it becomes disruptive; when honesty is not grounded on Li, it becomes a snare. When the ruler genuinely serves his parents, people will rise up to ethical resolve. If he does not desert his old friends, people will not be shallow."
子曰:「恭而無禮則勞,慎而無禮則葸,勇而無禮則亂,直而無禮則絞。君子篤於親,則民興於仁;故舊不遺,則民不偷。」

3. Master Zeng was ill. He summoned his students and said, "Uncover my feet. Uncover my hands. In the Poems, it is said, 'I fear and I tremble; as if I am on the verge of a deep water; as if I tread on a wafer-thin ice.' I know that from henceforth I am released from this, my dear students!"
曾子有疾,召門弟子曰:「啟予足!啟予手!《詩》云『戰戰兢兢,如臨深淵,如履薄冰。』而今而後,吾知免夫!小子!」

4. Master Zeng was ill. Meng Jing Zi (孟敬子) paid a visit. Master Zeng spoke thus: "When a bird is about to die, its sound becomes sad. When a man is about to die, his speech becomes good. A noble man will think highly of these three in his pursuit of the Way: When you move about, you should avoid being rough or lazy. You should maintain a determined look so that you can inspire confidence. When you speak, you should avoid being vulgar and rowdy. As for complying with the ceremonial details, that is what a steward is there for."
曾子有疾,孟敬子問之。曾子言曰:「鳥之將死,其鳴也哀;人之將死,其言也善。君子所貴乎道者三:動容貌,斯遠暴慢矣;正顏色,斯近信矣;出辭氣,斯遠鄙倍矣。籩豆之事,則有司存。」

5. Master Zeng said, "While he was capable he nevertheless sought advice from those who are not capable. While he had many talents, he nevertheless sought advice from those who have few talents. He got it but it appeared as if he did not get it. He was full of substance and yet he appeared to have no substance. He received blow without retaliating. My old friend used to do his work in this manner."
曾子曰:「以能問於不能,以多問於寡;有若無,實若虛,犯而不校,昔者吾友嘗從事於斯矣。」

6. Master Zeng said, "If you could be entrusted with a four foot tall orphan, you could be entrusted with the fate of one hundred villages. Faced with a great penurie and yet not to make exactions from your charge, this is how a ruler should deal with his people. It is how a noble man deals with the people."
曾子曰:「可以託六尺之孤,可以寄百里之命,臨大節而不可奪也。君子人與?君子人也。」

7. Master Zeng said, "An officer must be immensely firm. His task is heavy and he has a long way to go. Ethical resolve is his task. Isn't it heavy? Death only will put an end to his task. Isn't it long?"
曾子曰:「士不可以不弘毅,任重而道遠。仁以為己任,不亦重乎?死而後已,不亦遠乎?」

8. The Master said, "Poetry will move you. Li will give you a standing. Music will accomplish you."
子曰:「興於詩,立於禮。成於樂。」

9. The Master said, "You can make people use the knowledge; but you cannot give them knowledge."
子曰:「民可使由之,不可使知之。」

10. The Master said, "If you cherish courage and abhor deprivation, you become disruptive. Likewise, seeing a man lacking in ethical resolve, if you abhor him too much, you become disruptive."
子曰:「好勇疾貧,亂也。人而不仁,疾之已甚,亂也。」
[Also see 4.6]

11. The Master said, "You may have superb talents like the Duke of Zhou. But if you are arrogant and condescending, the rest of you is not worth looking at."
子曰:「如有周公之才之美,使驕且吝,其餘不足觀也已。」

12. The Master said, "Having devoted three years to learning and yet still not finding an employment is indeed rare."
子曰:「三年學,不至於穀,不易得也。」
[Also see 2.8]

13. The Master said, "With full confidence, proceed to learning. Have the deadly determination to abide by the good Way. If the country is dangerous, do not enter. If the country is turbulent, do not stay. If the Way prevails in the world, come to the surface. If the Way is lost, lie low. If the country has the Way and you have no wealth or honour, you should be ashamed. If the country has lost the Way and you still have wealth or honour, you should be ashamed."
子曰:「篤信好學,守死善道。危邦不入,亂邦不居。天下有道則見,無道則隱。邦有道,貧且賤焉,恥也;邦無道,富且貴焉,恥也。」

14. The Master said, "If you are not in the right place, do not scheme to govern."
子曰:「不在其位,不謀其政。」

15. The Master said, "Music Director Zhi's rendition of the last movement of guan qu; isn't it magnificent! It fills your ear with its quivering resonance."
子曰:「師摯之始,關雎之亂,洋洋乎!盈耳哉。」

16. The Master said, "If you express yourself bluntly and yet not even honest, if you are thick and yet not even sincere, if you are incapable and yet not even trustworthy, I have no business with you."
子曰:「狂而不直,侗而不愿,悾悾而不信,吾不知之矣。」

17. The Master said, "Learning is like pursuing the unattainable. Perhaps you should rather be afraid of losing what you have already learned."
子曰:「學如不及,猶恐失之。」

18. The Master said, "How majestic! Shun and Wu, they had the whole world but they did not exploit it."
子曰:「巍巍乎!舜禹之有天下也,而不與焉。」

19. The Master said, "Great indeed was the way Yao governed! How majestic! Only the Heaven is great; only Yao could emulate the greatness. Vast and serene! People had no words to describe it. Majestic is he who brought his endeavour to completion! Brilliant is he who had the splendid civilization!'
子曰:「大哉,堯之為君也!巍巍乎!唯天為大,唯堯則之。蕩蕩乎!民無能名焉。巍巍乎!其有成功也;煥乎,其有文章!」

20. Shun had five ministers and he could govern the whole world. King Wu [주 무왕] had also said, "I only have ten capable ministers." The Master said, "Talent is hard to get by. What else could be the reason? During the period between Tang and Wu, those few managed to achieve the prosperity. [As for the reign of King Wu], not counting the woman, nine people managed it in fact. Having conquered two thirds of the whole world, Zhou nevertheless respectfully served Yin. The virtue of Zhou can certainly be called the ultimate of the virtues."
舜有臣五人而天下治。武王曰:「予有亂臣十人。」孔子曰:「才難,不其然乎?唐虞之際,於斯為盛。有婦人焉,九人而已。三分天下有其二,以服事殷。周之德,其可謂至德也已矣。」

21. The Master said, "About Wu, I have nothing to reproach. Simple were his food and drinks. But he served ghosts and spirits to the utmost. Ragged were his clothes. But his ceremonial robe and cap were of utmost beauty. Ignoble were his palace and residence. But he devoted all his force to build canals and aqueducts. About Wu, I have nothing to reproach."
子曰:「禹,吾無間然矣。菲飲食,而致孝乎鬼神;惡衣服,而致美乎黻冕;卑宮室,而盡力乎溝洫。禹,吾無間然矣。」

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