Rightness v. Benefit (義 v 利)
Confucius said, “A noble man finds joy in rightness, the petty and the lowly find joy in benefit.” (Lunyu, 4.16)
子曰：「君子喻於義，小人喻於利。」 (里仁, 4.16)
Mengzi had audience with King Hui of Liang. The King said, “You did not consider thousands of milesto be a long distance and came all the way to see me. That means that you have something which would benefit my country.” Mengzi replied, “Why do you have to mention benefit? There is also ethical integrity and rightness. If the King would say, ‘How can I benefit my country?’ then magnats would say ‘How can I benefit my household?’ Ordinary citizens would say, ‘How can I benefit myself?’ If people of higher status and lower status invade each other to gain benefit, the country will be in a peril. The lord of a country with 10,000 chariots will be assassinated by a lord with 1,000 chariots. The lord of a country with 1,000 chariots will be assissinated by a lord with 100 chariots. Alternatively, a lord with 10,000 chariots will conquer a lord with 1,000 chariots. A lord with 1,000 chariots will conquer a lord with 100 chariots. Such events would not be rare. If you put benefit before rightness, you would keep grabbing others’ shares. He who has ethical integrity has never abandoned his parents. He who has rightness has never treated his ruler as being of secondary importance. The King should also talk about ethical integrity and rightness. Why do you mention benefit? (Mengzi, Liang Hui Wang I)
孟子對曰：「王何必曰利？亦有仁義而已矣。王曰『何以利吾國』？大夫曰『何以利吾家』？士庶人曰『何以利吾身』？上下交征利而國危矣。萬乘之國弒其君者，必千乘之家；千乘之國弒其君者，必百乘之家。萬取千焉，千取百焉，不為不多矣。苟為後義而先利，不奪不饜。未有仁而遺其親者也，未有義而後其君者也。王亦曰仁義而已矣，何必曰利？」 (맹자, 양혜왕 상, 1.1)
Confucius said, “If you pursue benefit in your conduct, you will attract a lot of grievances.”
子曰：「放於利而行，多怨。」 (里仁, 4.12)
Ethical integrity and Benefit (仁 and 利)
Confucius said, “Those who do not have ethical integrity cannot remain bound by ethics for long. They cannot remain joyfully bound by ethics for long. Those who have ethical integrity are at peace with ethics. Wise people derive benefit from their ethical integrity.
子曰：「不仁者不可以久處約，不可以長處樂。仁者安仁，知者利仁。」 (里仁, 4.2)
The Master said, ‘Delighted is a man of wisdom, like free-flowing water. Delighted is a man of ethical integrity, like a majestic mountain. A man of wisdom is dynamic. A man of ethical integrity is serene. A man of wisdom is full of joy. A man of ethical integrity lasts long.’
子曰：「知者樂水，仁者樂山；知者動，仁者靜；知者樂，仁者壽。」 (雍也, 6.23)
Zilu was spending a night at Shi Men. The gatekeeper asked him, "Where do you come from?". Zilu replied, "I am with Mr Kong." The gatekeeper said, "You mean, the guy who does things knowing that they are not feasible?"
子路宿於石門。晨門曰：「奚自？」子路曰：「自孔氏。」曰：「是知其不可而為之者與？」 (憲問, 14.38)
‘People don’t understand you and you don’t mind; you sure are a noble man!’
人不知而不慍，不亦君子乎？ (學而, 1.1)
‘Do not worry if others do not understand you; you should worry if you do not understand others.’
子曰：「不患人之不己知，患不知人也。」 (學而, 1.16)
Zi Gong asked? "If a person is liked by everyone in the village, how about him?" The master said, "That is not enough." "If a person is hated by everyone in the village, how about him?" The Master said, "That is not enough. It is better to be liked by the good people of the village and hated by the bad people of the village."
子貢問曰：「鄉人皆好之，何如？」子曰：「未可也。」「鄉人皆惡之，何如？」子曰：「未可也。不如鄉人之善者好之，其不善者惡之。」 (子路, 13.24)
The master said, ‘A noble man’s standard is the whole world. Nothing is correct, nothing is incorrect. He abides only by the rightness.’
子曰：「君子之於天下也，無適也，無莫也，義之與比。」 (里仁, 4.10)
‘Genuine heart’, unconcerned by social pressure or censure.
Lin Fang asked about the root of Li. The Master said, ‘Great question! Regarding Li, you should rather be frugal than splashing out. Regarding funeral, you should rather have a genuine sentiment of poignancy than nicely decorating the graves.
林放問禮之本。子曰：「大哉問！禮，與其奢也，寧儉；喪，與其易也，寧戚。」 (八佾, 3.4)
People start to cut grass around the grave only recently.
易墓，非古也。(예기, 단궁 55) (易=芟治草木; 삼치초목) 벌초를 하고 묘를 가꾸는 일은 오래된 일이 아니다. (최근 와서 사람들이 ‘외형’에 치중하게 되었다는 비판)
Zilu said, ‘I heard the master say thus, “Regarding funeral, having enough provisions to abide by li without having enough sadness, is not as good as having enough sadness without having enough provisions to abide by li. Regarding ancestral ceremony, having enough provisions to abide by li without having enough respect for the dead, is not as good as having enough respect for the dead without having enough provisions to abide by li. (Li ji, Dan Gong 56)
子路曰：「吾聞諸夫子：喪禮，與其哀不足而禮有餘也，不若禮不足而哀有餘也。祭禮，與其敬不足而禮有餘也，不若禮不足而敬有餘也。」 (단궁 56)
‘Subjectivity’, conviction (groundless or proper)
The Master said, ‘A man of wisdom is not distracted by doubts, a man of ethical integrity is not plagued by worries, a man of courage is not shriveled by fear.’
子曰：「知者不惑，仁者不憂，勇者不懼。」 (子罕, 9.29)
The Master said, ‘You may learn together but you may not choose the right path together. Perhaps you may choose the right path together but you may not achieve the goal together. Perhaps you may even achieve your goal together, but you cannot make judgment together.’
子曰：「可與共學，未可與適道；可與適道，未可與立；可與立，未可與權。」 (子罕, 9.30)
Guan Yin Zi said, ‘Judgment of the petty and the lowly results in evil; judgment of a noble man results in good; judgment of a saint results in no gain. Only when your judgment leads to no gain will you be practicing the Dao.’ (Wen Shi Zhen Jing)
소인의 판단은 악한 결과로 귀결되고, 군자의 판단은 선한 결과로 귀결되며, 성인의 판단은 아무런 이득이 없는 것으로 귀결한다. 아무런 이득이 없는 것만이 도를 행하는 것이다. (《文始真經·一宇》 도교 5대 경전 중 하나)
Bodhisattva should produce ‘an unsupported thought, …a thought unsupported by sights, sounds, smells, tastes, touchables or mind-objects.’ — The Diamond Sutra, ch. 10c (Edward Conze, Buddhist Wisdom Books, pp. 47-48).
Defeatism? Escapism? Or courageous engagement ?