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Xue(學), what is it?

선생님이 이렇게 말했다: “자로(子路; 제자 중 한 사람)야, 안다는게 뭔지 가르쳐 주랴? 자신이 아는게 뭔지를 알고, 자신이 모르는게 뭔지를 아는 것. 이게 아는 거야.”
子曰:「由!誨女知之乎?知之為知之,不知為不知,是知也。」 (為政, 2.17)

cf.) "When I left him, I reasoned thus with myself: I am wiser than this man, for neither of us appears to know anything great and good; but he fancies he knows something, although he knows nothing; whereas I, as I do not know anything, so I do not fancy I do. In this trifling particular, then, I appear to be wiser than he, because I do not fancy I know what I do not know." - Apology, 6

‘Taming’ of Confucian Analect

The Master said, ‘To learn and to put it into practice at the right moment; isn’t it wonderful!’
子曰:學而時習之,不亦說乎?(學而, 1.1)

Zhu Xi, Commentaries to four books. ‘While human nature is good in every instance, some reaches enlightment earlier than others. The slow learners must learn from the fast learners. What you have already learned must be frequently be revised. As you fully understand what you have learned, the pleasure can be found there. … Cheng Zi said, ‘Xi means ‘to revise again’. If you often rethink and discern the different meanings, you will emerse yourself in it. There lies the joy.’
주희(남송 1127-1279) 四書章句集注: 人性皆善,而覺有先後,後覺者必效先覺之所為 … 既學而又時時習之,則所學者熟,而中心喜說. … 程子(1033-1107; 북송시대)曰 「習,重習也。時復思繹,浹洽(협흡)於中,則說也。」

時 = 的時

mobilise people at the right moment 使民以時 (1.5) (시도때도 없이 함부로 동원하면 안된다는 뜻)
Pheasants in the mountain bridge! It is the right time, right time, indeed! (「山梁雌雉,時哉時哉」) (10.18)
As he spoke only when it is the right time to speak, people did not hate his speech (夫子時然後言,人不厭其言) (14.13) (때가 아닌데 함부로 끼어들어 말하지 않는다는 뜻)
Use the calendar of Xia (夏) dynasty (行夏之時) (15.11)
When you are still young, as your physical energy is unsettled, you should watch out for physical attractions (少之時,血氣未定,戒之在色) (16.7)
Confucius chose the moment when he is not around to come and express hit gratitude. (孔子時其亡也,而往拜之) (17.1)
Four seasons come and go, all creatures are born. But does Heaven speak? (四時行焉,百物生焉,天何言哉) (17.19)

習 = 親習

Master Zeng said, "Every day, I scrutinise myself about three things – , whether I was loyal when I undertake other people’s business; whether I was trustworthy in my dealings with friends; whether I put into practice what I teach."
曾子曰:「吾日三省吾身:為人謀而不忠乎?與朋友交而不信乎?傳不習乎?」 (1.4)

The Master said, "Human nature tends to make us similar, while our practice tends to set us apart."
子曰:「性相近也,習相遠也。」 (陽貨, 17.2)

참고:

군자는 몸소 행하는 일에 신중해야 한다(君子慎所習) (공안국)

선한 일을 실제로 몸소 행하면(習於善) 군자가 되고, 악한 일을 실제로 몸소 행하면(習於惡) 소인이 되어 서로 멀어지게 된다 若習於善則為君子 若習於惡則為小人, 是相遠也 (論語注疏)

Through practice, our nature becomes complete (習與性成), 尙書, 太甲上 3

孟子曰:「行之而不著焉,習矣而不察焉,終身由之而不知其道者,眾也。」(진심 상, 5)

習於禮, 習射, 習舞, 習吹(나팔불기), 習五戎(다섯가지 병기를 다루는 것),

問道藝曰:「子習於某乎?」、「子善於某乎?」(예기, 소의)

所游必有常,所習必有業(예기, 곡례 상)

The method of learning: 見, 聞

The Master said, ‘There are people who do things without knowing what they are doing. I am not like that. Study a lot. Then choose the good things and follow them. Experience a lot. You will then understand. This is how you acquire knowledge.’
子曰:「蓋有不知而作之者,我無是也。多聞擇其善者而從之,多見而識之,知之次也。」 (述而, 7.28)

Zi Zhang learned in order to seek an employment. The Master said, ‘When you study a lot, you can reduce doubts. If you cautiously say things which are not doubtful, you will make few mistakes. When you experience a lot, you can reduce the risk. If you cautiously do things which are not risky, you will have few regrets. When you make few mistakes in your speech and when you have few regrets in your conduct, an employment is among the consequences.’
子張學干祿。子曰:「多聞闕疑,慎言其餘,則寡尤;多見闕殆,慎行其餘,則寡悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,祿在其中矣。」 (為政, 2.18)

The Master said, "You (由), do you want me to tell you what knowing is? To know that you know (when you know) and to know that you don't know (when you don't know), that it to know.”
子曰:「由!誨女知之乎?知之為知之,不知為不知,是知也。」 (為政, 2.17)

cf.) "When I left him, I reasoned thus with myself: I am wiser than this man, for neither of us appears to know anything great and good; but he fancies he knows something, although he knows nothing; whereas I, as I do not know anything, so I do not fancy I do. In this trifling particular, then, I appear to be wiser than he, because I do not fancy I know what I do not know." - Apology, 6

學 v 學文

The Master said, "When you are at home, serve your parents. When you are outside, have brotherly love and solidarity. You must carry out your task with utmost care and attention and you must be trustworthy. Comprehensively love all living beings; but you should be mindful of ethical integrity in your dealings with those close to you. Conduct should come first. Then, study when you have energy to spare.”
子曰:「弟子入則孝,出則弟,謹而信,汎愛眾,而親仁。行有餘力,則以學文。」 (學而, 1.6)

"There are people who can recite all three hundred poems. But when they are entrusted with governing, they cannot manage. When they are sent on diplomatic missions, they cannot cope on their own. There are many of them, but they are all useless. 子曰:「誦詩三百,授之以政,不達;使於四方,不能專對;雖多,亦奚以為?」(子路, 13.5)

Zi Xia said, ‘If you overcome talents, see through appearances, serve your parents with all your might, serve your boss with all that you have, abide by your words when socialising with friends, who can say that you haven’t learned? I will certainly say that you have learned.’
子夏曰:「賢(=勝)賢 易(=芟治草木; 삼치초목)色,事父母能竭其力,事君能致其身,與朋友交言而有信。雖曰未學,吾必謂之學矣。」 (學而, 1.7)

Zi Lu had Zi Gao appointed governor of Fei. The Master said, "You’re ruining a son of a decent man." Zi Lu said, "You need to look after people. You need to look after the alters of the earth and grains. Why must one read books before he can be considered to have learned?" The Master said, "This is why I hate silver tongue."
子路使子羔(자고)為費宰。子曰:「賊夫人之子。」子路曰:「有民人焉,有社稷焉。何必讀書,然後為學?」子曰:「是故惡夫佞者。」 (先進, 11.25)

참고: Chai is simple. Shen is dull and pompous. Shi is specious. You (Zi Lu) is rough and tough.
柴(=자고)也愚,參(=증자)也魯,師(=자장)也辟,由(=자로)也喭(안; rough and tough) 。(先進, 11.18)

The Master taught these four: Sophisticated culture, good conduct, loyalty and trustworthiness. 子以四教:文,行,忠,信。 (7.25)

好學 ‘Fond of learning’

‘Even in a hamlet of ten households, there is bound to be a man who equals me in loyalty and trustworthiness. But he will not be equal to me in his fondness for learning.’
子曰:「十室之邑,必有忠信如丘者焉,不如丘之好學也。」 (公冶長, 5.28)

Duke Ai asked, ‘Among your students, who is fond of learning?’ Confucius replied, ‘A man called Yan Hui was fond of learning. He was unswerving in his wrath. He did not repeat the same mistake twice. Unfortunately, he died early. Now there is none. I have not since heard of a man who is fond of learning.’
哀公問:「弟子孰為好學?」孔子對曰:「有顏回者好學,不遷怒,不貳過。不幸短命死矣!今也則亡,未聞好學者也。」 (雍也, 6.3)

‘A noble man will eat but not seek to bloat out. He will have a dwelling but not seek comfort. He will be forthcoming in his conduct but cautious with his words. He will proceed along the Way and be forthright. Such a man can be described as he who is fond of learning.’
子曰:「君子食無求飽,居無求安,敏於事而慎於言,就有道而正焉,可謂好學也已。」 (學而, 1.14)

Zi Xia said,"If you are always aware of what you lack and do not forget what you are capable of, then you can be called he who is fond of learning."子夏曰:「日知其所亡,月無忘其所能,可謂好學也已矣。」 (子張, 19.5)

Confucian curriculum?

子以四教:文,行,忠,信。 (7.25)

子所雅言,詩、書、執禮,皆雅言也。(7.18)

孔子以詩書禮樂教,弟子蓋三千焉,身通六藝者七十有二人(사마천, 사기, 孔子世家 62)

六藝 = 詩, , , , , 春秋 (春秋繁露, 玉杯 5)

教以六藝,曰禮、樂、射、御、書、數 (中論, 徐幹 Xu Gan, 171-218, Eastern Han)

"There are people who can recite all three hundred poems. But when they are entrusted with governing, they cannot manage. When they are sent on diplomatic missions, they cannot cope on their own. There are many of them, but they are all useless.
子曰:「誦詩三百,授之以政,不達;使於四方,不能專對;雖多,亦奚以為?」(子路, 13.5)

A man from Da Xiang clan said, ‘Great, isn’t he? Confucius. With his vast learning, he did not manage to make a name of himself.’ The Master heard this and told his students, ‘What shall I try? Shall I try carriage driving? Or shall I try shooting? I think I will try carriage driving.’
達巷黨人曰:「大哉孔子!博學而無所成名。」子聞之,謂門弟子曰:「吾何執?執御乎?執射乎?吾執御矣。」 (子罕, 9.2)

Zi Lu’s reposte

Zi Lu had Zi Gao appointed governor of Fei. The Master said, ‘You’re ruining a son of a decent man.’ Zi Lu said, ‘You need to look after people. You need to look after the alters of the earth and grains. Why must one read books before he can be considered to have learned?’ The Master said, ‘This is why silver tongue is hateful.’
子路使子羔(자고)為費宰。子曰:「賊夫人之子。」子路曰:「有民人焉,有社稷焉。何必讀書,然後為學?」子曰:「是故惡夫佞者。」 (先進, 11.25)

Chai is simple. Shen is dull and pompous. Shi is specious. You (Zi Lu) is rough and tough.
柴(=자고)也愚,參(=증자)也魯,師(=자장)也辟,由(=자로)也喭(안; rough and tough), 。(先進, 11.18)

Zi You’s reposte

The Master arrived in Wu Cheng. He heard the sound of stringed instruments and singing. Well pleased and smiling, he said, ‘Why use an ox knife to kill a chicken?’ Zi You replied, ‘Formerly, Master, I heard you say, “When a noble man has learned the Way, he loves men; when the petty and the lowly have learned the Way, it is easy to put them to service.”’ The Master said, ‘Hey guys, Yan is right. What I said earlier was only for laughs.’
子之武城,聞弦歌之聲。夫子莞爾而笑,曰:「割雞焉用牛刀?」子游對曰:「昔者偃(언=子游)也聞諸夫子曰:『君子學道則愛人,小人學道則易使也。』」子曰:「二三子!偃之言是也。前言戲之耳。」 (陽貨, 17.4)

Different ability

Confucius said, ‘Some people just understand. They are the top class. Those who learn and then understand are in the next class. Some people are dim and yet they learn. They are in the next class. Those who are dim and yet do not learn; they are in the lowest class.’
孔子曰:「生而知之者,上也;學而知之者,次也;困而學之,又其次也;困而不學,民斯為下矣。」 (季氏, 16.9)

The Master said, "I am not a person who knows at birth. I just have an antiquarian interests and I diligently search for truth." 子曰:「我非生而知之者,好古,敏以求之者也。」 (述而, 7.20)

Some know from birth, some know after learning, some know with difficulty. But they know it all the same. Some practise with ease, some practise with benefit, some practice with great deal of effort. But they achieve it all the same.
或生而知之,或學而知之,或困而知之,及其知之,一也;或安而行之,或利而行之,或勉強而行之,及其成功,一也。」(中庸, 20)

The Master said, ‘We are born with a similar nature. What we acquire later tends to set us apart.’
子曰:「性相近也,習相遠也。」 (陽貨, 17.2)

Gradual advancement

Zi Gong said, "In poverty, yet not be abject; in affluence, yet not be arrogant. How’s that?" The Master said, "Possible. But still, it is not as good as being poor yet in delight; being rich yet fond of Li." Zi Gong said, "The Odes have it, 'Like a gem! Now quarried, now filed, now sculpted and now polished!' Is that what you mean?" The Master said, "Ci, Now we can talk poetry together! I tell you one thing and you understand the next." 子貢曰:「貧而無諂,富而無驕,何如?」子曰:「可也。未若貧而樂,富而好禮者也。」子貢曰:「《詩》云:『如切如磋,如琢如磨。』其斯之謂與?」子曰:「賜也,始可與言詩已矣!告諸往而知來者。」 (學而, 1.15)

The destination: 仁

Zi Xia said, ‘Learn broadly and have firm resolve. Scrutinise intensely and pay close attention. Ethical resolve will arise from there.’
子夏曰:「博學而篤志,切問而近思,仁在其中矣。」 (子張, 19.6)
자하가 말하기를, 널리 배우되 진정한 의지를 가다듬고, 절실하게 회의하고 반추하는 것, 윤리적 결기는 여기서 생겨난다.

Xue (學) and xi (習)

Zi Xia said, ‘Public service and learning must go hand in hand.’
子夏曰:「仕而優則學,學而優則仕。」 (子張, 19.13)

A sense of balance

Master You said, "If your trust is close to righteousness, you may carry out your promises. If your politeness is close to Li, you can avoid humiliation. If you do not, as a result, lose your popularity, you can be a leader. 有子曰:「信近於義,言可復也;恭近於禮,遠恥辱也;因不失其親,亦可宗也。」(1.13)

cf. 大人者,言不必信,行不必果,惟義所在. 孟子, 離婁下 39

The Master said, "A noble man's standard is the whole world: nothing is correct, nothing is incorrect. Rightness goes with him." 子曰:「君子之於天下也,無適也,無莫也,義之與比。」 (里仁, 4.10)

The Master said, "When modesty is not grounded on Li, it becomes slavish; when cautiousness is not grounded on Li, it becomes cowardly; when courage is not grounded on Li, it becomes disruptive; when honesty is not grounded on Li, it becomes a snare. 子曰:「恭而無禮則勞,慎而無禮則葸,勇而無禮則亂,直而無禮則絞。(태백 8.2)

If you cherish ethical integrity and neglect learning, you will end up being stupid; If you cherish wisdom and neglect learning, you will end up being undisciplined. If you cherish trustworthiness and neglect learning, you will end up being a gangster; If you cherish honesty and neglect learning, you will end up being caught in a straightjacket; If you cherish courage and neglect learning, you will end up being disruptive; If you cherish firmness and neglect learning, you will end up being crazy." 好仁不好學,其蔽也愚;好知不好學,其蔽也蕩;好信不好學,其蔽也賊;好直不好學,其蔽也絞;好勇不好學,其蔽也亂;好剛不好學,其蔽也狂 (陽貨, 17.8)

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